Hand Knotted Rug Making Process

Rug Making Process

The process of making our hand-made rugs operates on a decentralized model, supported by comprehensive quality checks along the way. With this approach, we are able to work with and support specialist artisans in many different locations, but ensure the highest quality in the end results.

Raw Material Selection

The best wool is sourced and processed



Carding, Spinning & Hanks

Raw wool is cleaned and then spun into yarn



Dyeing

Jaipur dyes wool to over 3000 colors

Weaving

Artisans weave the rugs from a provided rug map



Washing

Rugs are washed to bring out the natural sheen in the yarns used and dislodge any dirt from the weaving process

Finishing

The completed rugs are evened out, trimmed and prepared for export


Finished Product

The finished rug is purchased by a customer to transform living spaces



Knots per square Inch (KPSI)

KPSI (Knots Per Square Inch) is a measurement of the density of knots in a hand-knotted rug and is a general indicator of its quality and durability. Knot count can, however, vary substantially depending on many other factors (such as style, origin, etc.), so this measurement is just one aspect to take into account when assessing a rug.




How do you measure it ?

Turn a hand-knotted rug over and count the individual knots you can see running vertically for 1’’ and then horizontally for 1’’. Multiplying these two figures together will give you the overall KPSI.

Hand-Knotted Rugs KPSI Example
Quality5x8
(150x240 cm)
8x10
(240x300 cm)
9x12
(270x360 cm)
10x14
(300x420 cm)
8x8
(64)
368.640
(knots)
737.280
(knots)
995.328
(knots)
1.290.240
(knots)
10x14
(140)
806.400
(knots)
1.612.800
(knots)
2.177.280
(knots)
2.822.400
(knots)
14x14
(196)
1.128.960
(knots)
2.257.920
(knots)
3.048.198
(knots)
3.951.360
(knots)

Pile

The pile of a rug refers to the way the fibres are finished. These are either trimmed or untrimmed (or sometimes a combination of the two) to produce the required designs in a rug.




LOOP PILE

The loops of fibre that make up the rug are left uncut. The lengths of these may vary from design to design.


CUT PILE

The loops of fibre are cut, creating a pile on the surface of the rug.


CUT AND LOOP PILE

A combination of cut and uncut loops are used to create distinctive textured designs


FLAT - WEAVE

These rugs have interwoven, rather than knotted or tufted fibres, so they have a flat finish instead of a pile.


Weaving Techniques

Not all handmade rugs are woven in the same way. The style of weaving determines both the appearance of the finished product, as well as the price (due to the time and labour involved).

Weaving Techniques at a Glance
Rug Type-5'x8'
(150x240cm)
Time to ManufactureDurabilityPriceshedding
Hand-Knotted 5-12 months 20+ years ,,,, Low
Hand-Tufted 4-6 months 3-10 years ,, Medium-High
Flat-Weave 3-4 months 20+ years ,, Low
Hand-Loomed Construction dependent (3-5 months) 3-10 years ,, Low-Medium
HAND KNOTTED
  • The most labour-intensive weaving process, conducted by specially-trained artisans
  • Working off a rug map, artisans tie individual knots to build up the rug’s design one row at a time
  • The quality of a hand-knotted rug is determined by the number of knots per square inch (KPSI)
  • A higher KPSI requires greater skill on the part of the weaver and results in a higher-quality rug
How To Identify:

Individual, often uneven knots are visible on the back of these rugs, mirroring the pattern visible on the front.

HAND TUFTED


  • Individual tufts of yarn are punched into a pre-made backing fabric with a special tufting gun
  • This tool hooks and pulls yarn through the backing to form loops or piles
  • This process is less skill and labor-intensive than hand-knotting, so rugs can be completed in a shorter amount of time
How To Identify:

These rugs have a canvas backing glued on to hold the knots in place and usually have a cut or cut and loop pile.

FLAT WEAVING
  • Flat-weave rugs are created on a loom, rather than knotted or tufted
  • These rugs are often reversible, with designs on both sides
  • Because they only consist of warp and weft threads they don’t have the thickness of knotted and tufted rugs
  • Flat-weave rugs are lightweight and often require rug pads to stay in place
How To Identify:

With their woven construction, these rugs are flat and don’t have a pile.

HAND LOOMED
  • Weavers use a loom to create these rugs by hand
  • The loom holds the warp (vertical) threads in place and allows the interweaving of the weft (horizontal)
  • Different looms are used to produce different types of rugs: including felted textures, shag, naturals or solid and border rugs
How To Identify:

Hand-loomed rugs usually have a low to medium pile (other than shags, which have a deep pile) and can have a canvas backing added to them.