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It is a quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 10/10 implies 100 knots per square inch.

It is a quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 11/11 implies 121 knots per square inch.

It is the number of holes in the rug fabric. It is a standard to indicate the detailing of a hand-tufted rug. The greater the number of holes, the more intricate the design.

It is the number of holes in the rug fabric. It is a standard to indicate the detailing of a hand-tufted rug. The greater the number of holes, the more intricate the design.

It is a quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 14/14 implies 196 knots per square inch and is one of the best qualities that large carpets are available in.

It is the number of holes in the rug fabric. It is a standard to indicate the detailing of a hand-tufted rug. The greater the number of holes, the more intricate the design.

A quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 3/20 quality translates to 12 knots per square inch. In the case of lower quality carpets, the knots are thick and are not tied in exact squares, so this measurement is used by local craftsmen.

A quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 4/25 quality translates to 25 knots per square inch. In the case of lower quality carpets, the knots are thick and are not tied in exact squares, so this measurement is used by local craftsmen.

A quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 6/6 implies 36 knots per square inch.

A quality standard for hand-knotted rugs. 8/8 implies 64 knots per square inch.

A

The aged look of a carpet is known as Abrash. The look is the effect of colour variation, which can emerge due to multiple reasons, such as the non-uniformity of yarn or the thickness of the tied knots. It can also happen because of how the yarn absorbs dye, or on the type of wool used.

A blend of wool sourced from Afghanistan. It is well-known for its durability and unique texture.

B

It is a knitted piece of fabric that is glued on the back of a rug.

It is a natural fibre extracted from the stalks of bamboo plants. The fibre has a texture similar to natural silk.

It is a rotating part in the head of a vacuum cleaner that knocks the surface being vacuumed to dislodge trapped dirt. While vacuuming a rug, it is recommended to switch off this setting or use a vacuum cleaner without a beater bar to avoid damage.

It is the tying together of the edges of a carpet to give it better durability. Traditional carpets are bound only along the length while for modern designs it is done on all sides.

C

A thick fabric glued to the back of a hand-tufted or a handloom rug with latex to protect the fibres from easily coming out. It increases durability and helps in identifying the construction type of the rug.

A process used to untangle clumped fibres of raw wool. The wool is groomed using a tool similar to a bristled brush.

A blend of wool sourced from Bikaner, in Rajasthan, which is known for its durability. It is considered the best quality of wool available in India.

The churi is used when weaving hand-knotted rugs. It is a curved sharp knife-like tool used to cut the yarn after tying each knot at the loom.

Cotton is a fluffy and soft staple fibre that grows in protective capsules around the seeds of cotton plants.

D

Also known as flatweave in India, the Dhurrie is a simple rug made by intertwining warp and wefts together.

This refers to the average life of a rug with regular use. Hand-knotted - 30+ years, Hand-tufted - 5-7 years, Handloom - 10+ years, Flatweave - 10+ years

The process of infusing colours into yarn, by dipping them into vats of dye.

F

Fibre is the continuous, thread-like material that is woven to make rugs. It can be spun out of natural or artificial materials such as cotton, wool, silk, or synthetics.

This refers to all the steps a carpet undergoes when it comes off the loom to make it ready for the home. Some steps include washing, trimming, binding and embossing. For a hand-knotted rug, there are 18 finishing steps, all of which are done by hand.

A flatweave is made entirely of interlocking warp and weft threads, the colours are based on the thread and the design is based on the different styles of interlocking.

An initiative where the long-term inmates in the prisons of Rajasthan design and weave rugs. It is a sustainable initiative that uses surplus and leftover yarn from the industry. The initiative is currently in Bikaner, Dausa and Jaipur Jail. The Freedom Manchaha collection has unique, one-of-a-kind rug designs.

G

It is the last step in the finishing process. The artisan carves and embosses the designs on the wool with scissors to sharpen the designs. Through this, a high-low effect is created on the carpet.

H

Lumps of wool are untangled by repeated combing by hand as Katwaris sift through the wool using a bristle pad.

On a loom set up with warps, an artisan ties individual knots on each warp thread, going line by line. Once a line is complete, it is locked in place with a thread of weft before the next line of knotting begins.

A rug woven and finished by hand, without the use of a machine.

In this process, the fibres are carded by a machine while the yarn is produced by spinning a charkha by hand. The hand-spun yarn has an uneven thickness which gives it a rustic look.

To create hand-tufted rugs, the artisan uses a tufting gun to push yarn into a piece of fabric. The fabric is outlined with a design that guides the artisan to create the rug’s final design.

This form of weaving is similar to textile weaving on a vertical handloom. Handloom rugs cannot bear intricate floral designs and generally have plain or geometrical designs.

It is a loose bundle of yarn formed after spinning. Hanks come in different lengths, depending on the material and manufacturer.

It is a natural fibre extracted from the stalks of the cannabis plant.

I

It is the level of detail in the design of a rug. It defines how compressed the variations in design are in a given space. In hand-knotted rugs, a greater intricacy means a greater number of knots per square inch, while on a hand-tufted rug it means a greater pic.

J

These plant fibres are extracted from the stalks of corchorus herbs. They are rough in texture but are eco-friendly and durable.

K

It is a style of flat weave from Persia. Unlike other hand-woven rugs, in which designs are made by weaving coloured strands onto underlying warp and wefts, kilim designs are made by interweaving various coloured warps and wefts.

The entanglement of fibre with the frame of warp and weft. There are different kinds of knots like Persian, Turkish and Tibetian.

A technique used to make hand-knotted carpets. There are 3 types of knotting techniques, based on the region where they originated: Turkish knot, Persian knot, Tibetan knot.

It is a measure of the intricacy and level of detail of a rug. The greater the KPSI, the more durable the rug.

L

It is a glue made from natural rubber. It is uniformly applied at the back of a hand-tufted carpet to enhance its strength and durability.

It is a device on which rugs are woven. The loom is operated by hand, and its basic purpose is simply to hold threads under tension so that weft threads can be interwoven.

M

In this process, the yarn is carded and spun by a machine. This gives a consistent yarn with a uniform thickness.

A rug that is made by using machine processes to develop the yarn, structure, production and finishing of the rug.

A unique initiative where artisans design rugs by themselves on the loom. It is a sustainable initiative that uses surplus and leftover yarn from the industry. The collection features one-of-a-kind rug pieces that show the untamed fashions and culture of rural India.

It is a blend of wool sourced from New Zealand. It is considered one of the highest qualities of wool in the world and is known for its sheen and a cloudy texture.

It is a unit of length. It is used to describe the thickness/diameter of individual strands of fibre. Thinner fibres indicate finer and softer wool, while thicker fibres are considered more durable.

P

It is a tool that looks similar to a bear claw and is used on the loom to compress the weft and the knots by knocking down on them through the warp. Used in hand-knotting and a style of flat weave called the Panja weave.

The pile of a rug refers to the finished fibres on the rug's surface. These can be trimmed, untrimmed, or at times a combination of the two to create an array of visual and textural effects on a rug.

R

The process of interweaving fibre using a needle to stitch or repair a worn-out corner of a rug. It is usually done to replace the weft in case it is damaged, redo some knots and correct minor defects, but can even be used as a design technique.

Wool is carded and spun manually. This gives a non-uniform look to the yarn which leads to variation in colour while dyeing.

Rug washing is one of the 18 finishing steps in which carpet is laid on the floor, water and mild washing solution is poured on the carpet and then an oar-like paddle is used to drive out the dirt trapped inside.

S

It is a coarse blend of wool sourced from the island of Sardinia in Italy that is used to make orbace. Orbace is a sturdy and waterproof fabric, produced from wool from the longest fibres obtained during carding.

It is a natural fibre harvested from the cocoons of wild silkworms and is considered the finest material for a rug.

It is the process of segregating clumps of wool on the basis of colour, texture and quality. It is the first stage in yarn production.

A skilled artisan who transforms raw wool into yarn through the process of hand-carding and hand-spinning. In India, the Bikaner region of Rajasthan is home to the finest spinners. Jaipur Rugs has over 3000 spinners in their network.

A process that is done after carding to transform clumps of wool into yarn. Fibres are spun together to form a thick thread. Hand-spun yarn is considered superior because of its higher durability and rustic look.

In this step, dyed hanks are manually wound into small spools which are then packed and transported. This is the last step in the production of yarn as usable raw material.

T

These are loose threads of the warp that come out along the width of a traditional carpet. They are sometimes styled by interlocking to give a better aesthetic appeal to the carpet.

This refers to the feel of a rug which is a result of weaving type, pile height and fibre used.

It is the process of pushing yarn into a backing fabric placed on an iron frame with a tufting gun to create the desired design.

A mechanical device, operated by hand or an electric motor, that a rug artisan uses to tuft individual yarns into a fabric. These are used to make hand-tufted rugs.

V

An apparatus that uses suction to pull out dirt from surfaces and is commonly used to clean rugs. It collects the dirt in a bag or container which can then be cleaned out.

It is a natural fibre made with wood pulp and is later spun to make yarn.

W

The warp is the vertical thread that makes up the main structure of a rug. It is a tensioned thread that is set up on the loom while the weft is what is put through.

A weaver is an artisan who produces textiles or rugs, by the process of weaving yarn threads.

This refers to the type of construction of a rug. It can either be hand-knotted, hand-tufted, handloom or flat weave.

This is the horizontal thread that makes up the textile or the structure of a rug. In a rug, it is used to set up the base for yarn and to interlock the pile in place.

It is a natural fibre that comes from shearing sheep. The best wool for rugs comes from the neck, sections of legs and belly region as these are softer, finer and longer.

Y

Yarn is the final product of sorting, carding and spinning raw fibre. It is the thick thread that is used to craft a rug.

Jaipur rugs
Jaipur rugs